Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1 ABSTARCT Visualization in data mining is a new methodology for exploring and analyzing a huge data sets, data visualization techniques and joining traditional data mining strategies. It is used for large amounts of data sets and information. Visualization of model-fitting, data and results play a very important role, but vast data sets are distinctive and new techniques of a data display needed for managing and dealing with large data sets. With the help of this paper to learn the importance of visualization techniques, approaches and methods used in data mining . The strategy used to achieve this objective is writing an literature review of many books, journal articles and conference proceeding which are written by experts. Contents 2. Introduction 3 3. Literature Review 4 4. Conclusion 5 5. Reference 5 2 INTRODUCTION Data mining is the procedure of identifying new hidden, insights and unexpected patterns in large data. Analyzing and exploring the huge volume of data sets and information becomes increasingly very difficult. Visualization of data mining helps to deal with a flood of data and information. As a volume of a large set of data stored and collected in databases develops, there is a developing need to provide a data summarization through visualization. The benefit of visual information investigation is that the client directly involves in the process ofShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Proper Representation Of Data1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrepresentation of data that is mined from social media. The need for data mining and its various advantages are also discussed. The standard tasks involved in data mining are explained. The discussion illuminates the various techniques that can be used for representing the data (Textual representation, Tables, Graphs, Infographic). 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Deliberative Publics and Science Policy. Answer: Introduction The public consultation is one of the most important rights of the citizens in a democratic country (Burgess 2014 pp 50). The citizens have the right to engage in the decision-making process of the nation. It is a form of recognition of the citizens has access to especially in a democratic economy (Axelrod and VanDeveer 2014 pp 104). The government gives sufficient opportunities to participate in the process of shaping the world (Burgess 2014). This kind of participation is usually affected in several ways at various levels. They can range from informal local community settings to the involvement of legal entities, NGOs and key institutions (Axelrod and VanDeveer 2014). This essay would critically assess the strengths as well as weakness of the public consultation process in the policy making function of the government. The analysis would be supported with the help of Australian policy making examples. Discussion The public consultation process comprises of the regulatory framework in which the general publics opinion on important matters is obtained before formulating important decisions (ALNabhani Khan and Yang 2016 pp 608). The primary goals of this process are the improvement of the efficiency as well as fostering transparency in the process. The government often aims for public involvement in the large-scale projects concerning the policies and laws (Axelrod and Van Deveer 2014). This process involves the notification, consultation as well as participation on important matters. The notification process comprises of the publicity on important matters that needs to be addressed. The consultation comprises of the two-way exchange of information as well as the exchange of opinions (Ezzamel et al. 2014). The participation process is concerned with the involvement of the different interest groups in the process of drafting policy on important matters. The process of public consultation is wide ly prevalent in the Commonwealth countries including Australia (Ezzamel et al. 2014). The democratic countries have displayed similar systems all over the world. The process of public consultation is different for different countries. The democracies are different and varied in terms of cultural as well as social distinction (Ezzamel et al. 2014). The conventions, traditions and the structures reflect the habits and values of the citizens of the country (Rose-Ackerman and Palifka 2016). The Australian scientist Graham Maddox has expressed his beliefs by stating that the democracy should be based on the constitutional order through which the power of the states is limited to the appropriate sections. The citizens are increasingly getting involved in the policy making process of the government (Purcell 2014). The principles of public participation are as follows- Public participation improves the quality of decision making of the government. It promotes sustainable decisions by recognising as well as communicating the interests of all the participants (Ezzamel et al. 2014). It involves all the necessary stakeholders in the decision-making process of the organization. It provides sufficient information to the stakeholders which would make them knowledgeable about the current scenario of the government (Purcell 2014). It should be accurate, balanced and comprehensive. The consultation process should be properly evaluated by the selection of criteria such as influence, timeliness, representation, enabling process, feedback and early involvement (Purcell 2014). The importance of the public consultation is described as follows - It fosters the relationship between the citizens and the government (Khan et al. 2015). Empowerment of the citizens as they feel valued to is a part of the decision-making process of the government (Purcell 2014). Growth of the individual opportunities. Increased power of the citizens which would lead to the greater autonomy. Efficient policy formulation as it would lead to better benefits to the nation (Khan et al. 2015). The public participation is considered as the most important aspect of the democratic government. The policy is based on the range of inputs derived from the public. It is also subjected to the external challenges (Khan et al. 2015). The policy formulation needs to be transparent and should be formulated after taking the viewpoints of the employees. There has been considerable improvement in the public services of Australia. The Royal Commission on Government Administration promoted the government approaches towards the public service and asked the citizens to connect greatly with the decision-making authorities of the government (Aph.gov.au 2017). There have been increasing reform activities in the Australia in various democratic parties. It welcomed the management practices in the private sector and emphasized on the three Es such as efficiency, economy and the effectiveness (Aph.gov.au 2017). The New Public Management (NPM) emphasized on the integration of the private sector with the public sector by applying the main lessons from the private sector in the formulation of public policies (Aph.gov.au 2017). There is an increase in the civic engagement in the country by increasing the stakeholder involvement and the citizen responsiveness (Aph.gov.au 2017). There are several strengths of the public consultation process. They are described below Sustainable Development- The public consultation has a unique feature of considering all the stakeholders for the purpose of deriving suitable decisions. This kind of consultation aims to integrate the social, economic and environmental aspects (Environment.gov.au 2017). There would be an increase in the public participation as there is a need to balance the environmental as well as economic trade-offs (Environment.gov.au 2017). In Australia, there are several environment issues which have been solved with the help of public consultation. The Ecological Sustainable Development was one of the first government initiatives to seek for sustainable development activities (Environment.gov.au 2017). It seeks out the public participation in matters such as energy production, energy use, conservation, transport and tourism activities (Environment.gov.au 2017). The Working Group aimed to implement the principles of the sustainable development in relevant sectors through the process of public c onsultation (Environment.gov.au 2017). This involved the increased concern of the public towards the environmental issues. Environmental Protection- One of the primary features of the public consultation in the process of the formulation of the environmental policies. It is believed that the environmental issues prevailing in Australia can be solved with the help of public participation (Vinuales 2014). This is because of the fact that public represents the environmental interests in Australia. It also helps the government to put environment on its agenda. The RIO Declaration has emphasized on the importance of the public participation in the matters of the environment (Vinuales 2014). This declaration is formulated on the Environment and its development which is one of the documents which is presented in the Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which is also known as Earth Summit (Aph.gov.au 2017). The declaration emphasizes on the fact that the environmental issues can be best handled by the participation of the citizens. It focuses on the fact that on the national level, each individual must have access to the relevant information which also includes the information on hazardous activities as well as the actions of the communities (UNEP, 2017). The public consultation in this sector helps to gain secure conservation gains by creating a barrier for the inappropriate development. The public would make the government aware of the existing issues of the environment (Vinuales 2014). Australia faces the issue of marine conservation and hence it is important to conserve the Great Barrier Reef (Dale et al. 2016). The reef faces the issue of climate change, damage in quality of water from run-off, overfishing, accidents related to shipping and the coral bleaching (Harris et al. 2013). Conflict Management- The public consultation process requires the viewpoints of several stakeholders who work for specific national or international issues (Foucault 2013). However, it is also important to understand how to manage the arising conflicts. The public consultation process is designed in such a manner that it gives sufficient opportunities for the citizens to resolve any arguments (Harris et al. 2013). The involvement of the citizens in the early stages of the policy formulation helps them to resolve any individual differences between them. The World Bank acknowledges the role of public consultation in effectively reducing the conflicts arising in the process of formulation of policies (Hill and Varone 2014). The Word Bank gives priority to the public consultation as it believes that this process improves the viability of a project. The public views would be incorporated in the policy document of the government and it is also helpful in the project execution (Harris et al . 2013). This is important for the ownership of the projects and the participation of the stakeholders in the management of the government projects. High performance of the policies- The public consultation focuses on the views of the citizens towards creating a sustainable and robust public policy (Harris et al. 2013). The experience of the citizens would help them to enrich the quality of the public policy. The viewpoints, ideas and the perspectives of the citizens would help to formulate an effective policy aimed at the betterment of the country (Micheletti Stolle and Berlin 2014). The implemented policies would help the country to solve the current issues of the country. The innovative and the creative policy would help the country to gain a new perspective towards the common political issues (Micheletti Stolle and Berlin 2014). It would also help in the consistent reform from the citizen focussed way that can be gained only through the process of public consultation. The collaboration with the citizens and their participation would not only help in the policy formulation but also help in the implementation of the policy in n ational or international context (Micheletti Stolle and Berlin 2014). Economic benefits- The public consultation is one of the core processes which aim to increase the economic benefits of the nation (Buchanan 2014). If there is public participation in the decision-making process, then there would be considerable savings of the time as well as finances (Buchanan 2014). The financial resources are important for a countrys well-being. If the citizens are involved in the early stages of the planning process, then there would be implementation of the correct budget approach. The Australian Government has successfully benefited from the public participation during the process of public consultation (Buchanan 2014). There is several weaknesses of the public consultation in the process of policy formulation. These are described below Costs of public consultation- There is significant increased costs of the public policy formulation as there is involvement of a large number of stakeholders. There are a number of costs that are associated with this approach. Each group of the stakeholders may have different budgetary requirements and this may create burden on the government authorities (Litman 2015). There are various costs associated with this process such as costs of research, cost of communication with the public, cost of resources for consultation management and others (Litman 2015). There can be other costs such as cost of delay and costs associated with the uncertainty of the policy formulation process. The government needs to address these costs and propose necessary suggestions for improving the same (Litman 2015). For example, the Australian Government has found it difficult to retain absolute control of the consultation process and hence there are instances when the government is unable to control the pub lic consultation process (Litman 2015). Lack of authority of citizens- There are instances when the citizens do not have formal powers which would make them suitable for public consultation (Castles 2016). They may not be able to make binding decisions and there can be instances when only a few individuals can participate. For example, in Australia, there is a difference between the Australian citizens and the permanent residents (Castles 2016). A resident has lower participation authority in the government matters of the state while the Australian citizens enjoy different legislative authorities (Castles 2016). The citizens have the right to vote while the residents do not have so. Similarly, the residents do not have the ability to involve in the decision-making process of the government (Castles 2016). The social imbalances regarding the authority to be involved in the public formulation of the policies create difficulties for the government bodies. This also makes it difficult to derive the true meaning of the public c onsultation. Initial preparation issues- The initial preparation phases of the policy formulation may not be easy and there can be issues with the assimilation of the various components (Castles 2016). There may be issues with the agenda setting, selection of jury, selection of the witness and others. There can also be issues with the selection of the community representatives (Castles 2016). The government may find it difficult to select an appropriate section of the population for involving in the policy making process of the government. There are also instances when the selection of a particular group of people does not effectively help in the policy formulation as this group may not be knowledgeable about the particular government matters (Castles 2016). There can be other weaknesses of the public consultation process such as information transfer and the responsiveness. Time consuming nature- There can be increased time consumption of the public consultation process. The individual groups of the citizens are difficult to be assimilated and it may take long time to gain their feedback (Apsc.gov.au 2017). The lack of infrastructure also makes the process of public consultation time consuming. The excessive delay in the policy formulation may cause issues for the government and there may also be delay in the actual implementation of the policies (Apsc.gov.au 2017). The Australian Public Service has lot of challenges regarding the timely implementation of the public policy and the way it is being implemented (Apsc.gov.au 2017). Lack of clarity in the policy making process- There is the presence of overlapping stages in the policy making process and there is no clear process in the implementation of the public consultation. The lack of the institutional arrangements and the lack of clear policy goals have created an issue for the public policy making activity (Khan et al. 2015). The trade unions and the civil society in Australia lack the expertise, resources and the planning to channelize the public consultation process in different areas of policy making (Khan et al. 2015). There is also lack of clarity of the policy makers which make it difficult to actually implement the public consultation process. Conclusion The public consultation is one of the most important parameters of the government and the formulation of the public policy is an important task. The citizens have the right to take decisions for the country. There is a range of different topics that need to be taken into consideration after taking the public viewpoints. This essay discussed about the details of the public consultation process. The principles of the public participation process are also discussed. It is important to implement a wide variety of public consultation polices which would improve the political as well as environmental scenario of Australia. The current situation of Australia regarding the public consultation process is enumerated and a fairly large number of examples have been used in this essay. The strengths as well as weakness of the public consultation process in the formulation of public policy are analysed in detail. This essay would provide a detailed picture of the actual public consultation process . References ALNabhani, K., Khan, F. and Yang, M., 2016. The importance of public participation in legislation of TENORM risk management in the oil and gas industry.Process Safety and Environmental Protection,102, pp.606-614. Aph.gov.au. 2017.Home Parliament of Australia. [online] Available at: https://www.aph.gov.au [Accessed 11 Jan. 2017]. Apsc.gov.au. 2017.APSC - APSC. [online] Available at: https://www.apsc.gov.au [Accessed 11 Jan. 2017]. Axelrod, R.S. and VanDeveer, S.D. eds., 2014.The global environment: institutions, law, and policy. CQ Press. Buchanan, J.M., 2014.Public finance in democratic process: Fiscal institutions and individual choice. UNC Press Books. Burgess, M.M., 2014. From trust us to participatory governance: deliberative publics and science policy.Public understanding of science,23(1), pp.48-52. Castles, S., 2016. Rethinking Australian migration.Australian Geographer,47(4), pp.391-398. Dale, A.P., Vella, K., Pressey, R.L., Brodie, J., Gooch, M., Potts, R. and Eberhard, R., 2016. Risk analysis of the governance system affecting outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef.Journal of Environmental Management,183, pp.712-721. Environment.gov.au. 2017.Home - Department of the Environment and Energy, Australian Government. [online] Available at: https://www.environment.gov.au [Accessed 11 Jan. 2017]. Ezzamel, M., Hyndman, N., Johnsen, A. and Lapsley, I., 2014. Reforming central government: an evaluation of an accounting innovation.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,25(4), pp.409-422. Foucault, M., 2013.Politics, philosophy, culture: Interviews and other writings, 1977-1984. Routledge. Harris, P.T., Bridge, T.C., Beaman, R.J., Webster, J.M., Nichol, S.L. and Brooke, B.P., 2013. Submerged banks in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, greatly increase available coral reef habitat.ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil,70(2), pp.284-293. Hill, M. and Varone, F., 2014.The public policy process. Routledge. Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M. and Schwartz, B., 2015. The evidence base of primary research in public health emergency preparedness: a scoping review and stakeholder consultation.BMC public health,15(1), p.1. Litman, T., 2015.Evaluating public transit benefits and costs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Micheletti, M., Stolle, D. and Berlin, D., 2014. Sustainable citizenship: The role of citizens and consumers as agents of the environmental state.State and environment: The comparative study of environmental governance, pp.203-236. Purcell, M., 2014. Public participation in new local governance spaces: The case for community development in local strategic partnerships. InThe European Conference on Politics, Economics and Law 2014: Official Conference Proceedings(pp. 143-159). IAFOR. Rose-Ackerman, S. and Palifka, B.J., 2016.Corruption and government: Causes, consequences, and reform. Cambridge university press. UNEP, 2017.United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - Home page. [online] Unep.org. Available at: https://www.unep.org [Accessed 11 Jan. 2017]. Vinuales, J.E., 2014.The Rio declaration on environment and development: a commentary. Oxford University Press, USA.